Objectives: We hypothesized that a meta-analysis of existing studies may help to reveal significant changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with glaucoma. Therefore, a meta-analysis was utilized to investigate the possibility that DTI can detect white matter damage in patients with glaucoma. Methods: The study design and report adhered to the PRISMA Statement guidelines. DTI studies that compared glaucoma patients and controls were surveyed using PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE (January 2008 to September 2013). Stata was used to analyze the decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) and increase in mean diffusivity (MD) in the optic nerve and optic radiation in patients with glaucoma. Results: Eleven DTI studies were identified through a comprehensive literature search, and 10 independent DTI studies of glaucoma patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. A random effects model revealed a significant FA reduction in the optic nerve and optic radiation, as well as a significant MD increase in the tracts. A heterogeneity analysis suggested that FA may be related to glaucoma severity. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the optic nerve and optic radiation were vulnerable regions in patients with glaucoma and that FA may be correlated with glaucoma severity and age. Furthermore, this study suggests that magnetic resonance imaging in patients with glaucoma may help to provide objective evidence to aid in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.